PLD is a physical vapor deposition technique in which the pulsed beam of a high-power laser is focused inside a vacuum chamber on a target. The target is usually a sintered ceramic with the chemical composition of the film that is to be deposited. A significant removal of material occurs above a certain threshold energy density (depending on the material, and laser wavelength and pulse duration).The ejected material forms a luminous ablation plume directed towards a substrate placed front the target at a distance of 4-8 cm, where it re-condenses to form a film. Usually the plume (composed by neutrals, ions and electrons, and more complex species) conserves the stoichiometry of the target. The deposition can occur either in ultra-high vacuum as well as in a background gas (up to several mTorr) such as oxygen, which is commonly used when depositing oxides.

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